Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - the silent threat of modern times
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is one of the most serious health problems worldwide, mostly related to smoking. According to the World Health Organization, about 10% of the planet's population suffers from the disease. Nearly 3 million deaths are recorded each year.
It is estimated that by 2020, COPD will be the third leading cause (after heart attack and stroke) of death in the population. Despite the high incidence of COPD, people's awareness of the disease is extremely insufficient - 75% of the patients do not know that they have the disease.
WHAT IS COPD?
It is Hronic Odestructive Bpulmonary Boleste
Hronic because it cannot be completely cured.
Obstructive because there are narrowing of the airways.
Bpulmonary, because it is the organ responsible for breathing.
Boleste because it damages human health.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is lung disease, which is characterized by a restriction of the airflow in the respiratory tract - partially or completely irreversible. Airflow restriction is due to inflammation of the lung tissue (parenchyma) caused by the inhalation of gases and particles from the environment.
COPD includes two main components – chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema.
Chronic bronchitis is defined as the presence of inflammation in the respiratory tract, resulting in cough and phlegm lasting no less than 3 months in two consecutive years. In chronic bronchitis, a restructuring of the wall of the respiratory tract occurs, as a result of which the opening (lumen) of the bronchi narrows. This leads to permanent airflow limitation in them.
Pulmonary emphysema is permanent enlargement of the lung alveoli (bubbles), as a result of destruction (destruction) of the elastic fibers in their walls. The destruction of the alveolar walls causes the collapse of the small airways (bronchioles), as a result of which the function of the lungs is disturbed.
Risk factors for COPD
Risk factors for COPD can be endogenous (factors from the human body) and exogenous (factors from the environment).
The main exogenous risk factor causing COPD is smoking. About 15% of all smokers develop the disease. That's why some call COPD "smoker's disease".
Other risk factors are: polluted atmospheric air; congratulations respiratory tract infections; the intense and prolonged exposure to harmful substances in the work environment (dusts and chemicals); socio-economic status (eg low dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins A, C and E and others); gender; age and others.
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease –
- the silent menace of modernity