Authors: Dimo Kroustev, Elena Jambazova
Edition: Second Revised and Augmented
Year of issue: 2017
Volume: 465 pages.
Cover Type: Paperback
SUBJECT, TASKS AND METHODS OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
A BRIEF HISTORY OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
ANATOMICAL PLANES AND ANATOMICAL NOMENCLATURE
Landmarks in the human body
Chapter 1: CAGE
Chemical composition of the cell
External cell morphology
Transport across the cell membrane
Mechanisms of intercellular signaling
Regulation of body functions
Chapter 2: FABRICS.
General properties of tissues.
Types of fabrics.
Chapter 3: SKIN
Functional organization of the skin.
Functions of the skin.
Chapter 4: SUPPORT-MOTOR APPARATUS
Macroscopic structure of the bone.
Blood supply and innervation of bone
Bone development and growth
Bones of the torso
Bones of the upper limb.
Bones of the lower limb.
CONNECTIONS BETWEEN BONES (ARTHROLOGIA).
Put in the human body.
Joints of the spine
Joints of the chest
Joints of the shoulder girdle and upper limb
Joints of the pelvic girdle and lower limb
Structure and mechanics of skeletal muscle
Muscle groups in the human body.
Muscles of the head.
Proprietary muscles of the shoulder girdle and of the free upper limb.
Muscles of the lower limb.
Chapter 5: GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY OF EXCITABLE CELLS
Resting membrane potential
Types of excitable membranes
Types of excitation upon irritation of electroexcitable membranes
Properties of the action potential.
Propagation of the action potential across the membrane
Information transmission between excitable cells.
Mediators, receptors and mechanism of their action.
Low molecular weight compounds: Acetylcholine, biogenic amines, amino acids
Chapter 6: PHYSIOLOGY OF MUSCLES
Physiology of skeletal muscle
A functional device.
Structure of myofibrils
Excitation of skeletal muscles.
Relating the process of excitation to the process of contraction
Mechanism of muscle contraction
Relaxing the muscle.
Types of muscle contractions.
Regulation of the force of muscle contraction
Energy metabolism of muscle contraction
Physiology of smooth muscle.
Visceral smooth muscles.
Discrete smooth muscle
Functional morphology of smooth muscle.
Innervation of smooth muscles.
Mechanism of muscle contraction
Features of smooth muscle contractions
Regulation of redundancies.
Physiology of the myocardium
Chapter 7: NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Functions of the nervous system.
Functions of neurons
Types of neurons
Functional areas of the neuron.
Connections between neurons
Organization of the nervous system
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Structure and functions of the cerebrum.
Structure and functions of the spinal cord.
Physiology of sleep
Higher functions of the nervous system.
Neurophysiological foundations of consciousness.
Neurophysiological foundations of speech.
Neurophysiological foundations of memory.
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Reflex activity of the nervous system.
Types of reflexes.
General characteristics of the posture and movement regulation system.
Involvement of the spinal cord in the regulation of movements
Involvement of the brainstem in the regulation of movements
Involvement of the cerebral cortex in the regulation of movements
Involvement of the basal ganglia in the regulation of movements
Involvement of the cerebellum in the regulation of movements.
Chapter 8: VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Shares of the Supreme Court
Physiological action of the sympathetic lobe.
Physiological action of the parasympathetic division.
Interaction between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
Centers regulating vegetative functions.
Chapter 9: THERMOREGULATION.
Normal body temperature.
Mechanisms of heat production.
Mechanisms of heat release
Mechanisms of thermoregulation.
Violations in maintaining normal body temperature
Chapter 10: SENSORY SYSTEMS
Sensory functions of the nervous system.
General arrangement of the sensory systems.
Tactile receptors (mechanoreceptors).
Temperature receptors (thermoreceptors).
Pain receptors (nociceptors).
Types of pain.
Natural anti-pain (antinociceptive) system.
OLFACTORY AND TASTE SYSTEMS
Structure and function of the olfactory system.
Olfactory pathways and cortical areas.
Disturbances in the sense of smell.
Structure and function of the taste system.
Taste pathways and cortical areas.
Structure and function of the organ of hearing - the ear.
Coding of sound frequency information.
Encoding of volume information
Conduits and bark areas.
Disorders in the function of the vestibular system
Anatomy of the eye
Formation of the visual image. Optical apparatus of the eye.
Pupil and pupillary reactions
Field of vision
Chapter 11: ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.
Hormones - types, transport, mechanism of action, elimination
Regulation of hormonal secretion.
Glands with internal secretion.
Chapter 12: BLOOD
Functions of the blood
Amount and composition of blood.
Hemostasis (blood clotting)
Blood clotting (hemocoagulation)
Chapter 13: CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Heart - device, functions
Cardiac cycle. Phases.
Regulation of cardiac activity
Blood vessels - device, types, functions
Movement of blood in the veins.
Regulation of vascular tone
Regulation of the activity of the cardiovascular system and blood pressure
Chapter 14: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Anatomy of the respiratory system
Nose and nose kitchen.
Trachea and bronchi.
Physiology of the respiratory system.
Functional anatomy of the respiratory tract.
Blood supply and innervation.
Lung volumes and capacities.
Regulation of breathing.
Chapter 15: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Functions of the digestive system
Functional anatomy of the digestive system.
Enteric nervous system
Digestion in the oral cavity
Digestion in the stomach
Pancreas and liver.
Digestion in the small intestine
Chapter 16: METABOLISM AND ENERGY.
Metabolism of carbohydrates. Regulation
Fat breakdown and metabolism. Regulation.
Protein exchange. Regulation.
Exchange of vitamins
Chapter 17: SEPARATORY SYSTEM
Structure of the nephron.
Peculiarities in the blood supply of the kidneys.
Mechanism of urine formation.
Tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion.
Concentration and dilution of urine.
Final urine volume and composition
Regulation of kidney function
Chapter 18: ALKALINE-ACID EQUILIBRIUM
Sources of H+ in the body
Regulation of ACR
Buffer systems in body fluids.
Respiratory regulation of AKR
Renal regulation of ACR.
Violations of AKR.
Chapter 19: SEXUAL SYSTEM
Anatomy and physiology of the male reproductive system
Male external genitalia.
Male internal genitalia
Anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive system.
Female external genitalia.
Female internal genitalia
Changes in the body during pregnancy